The HITT programme provided informal sector workers – especially women, young people and the unskilled and semi-skilled – with market-oriented, vocational training.
Enhanced skill levels will enable such workers to gain better job positions, higher wages and greater employment security. At the same time they should develop the know-how and contacts to capitalize on opportunities and help grow the sector in which they work, in a sustainable and pro-poor way.
The High Impact Tourism Training for Jobs and Income (HITT) programme was implemented in seven developing countries (Benin, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique in Africa and Cambodia, Nepal, Vietnam in Asia) and aimed to provide practical market driven training opportunities to informal workers in the tourism sector, resulting in a virtuous circle of better qualifications and skills, a higher number of clients and increase in income received by these informal workers. Furthermore, other effects include better services provided to tourists, and job creation in the tourism sector.
The project was implemented in collaboration with eight local partner organisations that provided or facilitated TVET. These institutions were closely involved in the inception, design, implementation and evaluation phases of the programme, carrying out a mix of the market analysis, needs assessment, HITT curriculum development, training-of-trainers, direct training and evaluation activities.
The programme could be summarized around three main directions of development: i) the achievement of training objectives in terms of quality standards and beneficiaries, ii) ownership and iii) sustainability.
The Action succeeded in developing effective market driven training strategies and training products in all countries; in building the capacity of trainers to deliver practical and high impact trainings; in delivering training to end beneficiaries; and in evaluating the results achieved by the Action.
The impact of the programme was clearly positive, from the point of view of the evaluators and the one of the various stakeholders and beneficiaries, in terms of skills improvement, employability, increase of income and social conditions.
By December 2013, 9,290 trainees were trained:
Number of targeted beneficiaries
Number of trainees trained
On average, women trained by HITT have increased their income by 54%, youth trainees have increased their income by 139%, low skilled workers (no formal education of less than 6 years education) have increased their income by 75%, the proportion of extreme poor adult male workers has decreased drastically, from 34% to 11%. Likewise, on average, the average income of trainees has increased by 85% and the proportion of unemployed has decreased by 50.
The levels of satisfaction with regard to skills improvement (96%).among the trainers. In fact , at the trainers’ level, through the High Impact Training approach pursued by the programme, the Action was able to generate behavioural changes among trainers which resulted in practical, market oriented and effective trainings for end beneficiaries.
The ownership of the programme by national and local bodies was a primary objective. The relevant stakeholders such as companies from the private sector, professional organizations (national and international), government institutions and local NGOs were involved in the HITT programme from the early stages of its development. They were integrated to the process from the inception phase (identifications of occupations, needs assessment, design of the training strategy) to the implementation phase (logistics, curriculum and training material development, financial participation, certification, etc.) and evaluation phase (monitoring, collection of feedback, sharing of lessons). A core element of the programme and one of the main achievements has been the active participation of the private companies in the training development and implementation. This was made possible thanks to the combination of training cascading systems (Training of Trainers) and the correct targeting of the companies’ needs. The ownership of our programme by national and local stakeholders was also largely obtained through the implication of professional associations, government institutions, development partners, TVET service providers, and even international organizations in the process of training certification. The certification of the training, i.e. the official recognition of the qualifications of the beneficiaries of the HITT programme, was essential to ensure the formalization of informal workers, in order to give them a higher value on the labour market, increase their income and improve their social situation. The ownership that we achieved at different levels also guarantees the sustainability of our intervention.
From the beginning of the programme the sustainability of the Action has been a major concern. Several strategies were implemented to ensure that the in-country organizations could capitalize on the benefits brought by the HITT programme. Certification, as explained above, was one component. When it was possible, our action consisted in setting up the structure that would enable the cooperation of the various stakeholders towards the establishment of an efficient certification system. Besides the immediate effects of the certification, beneficiaries also get perspectives of professional evolution (by aiming at higher certifications) and the subsequent motivation. The cascading training system that was implemented in several countries also targeted the sustainability of the programme, since the trainers who have been trained will be able to deliver additional training within their company in the future, although the HITT programme is over. As importantly, this future training will be supported by the training materials that were distributed to the trainers and the institutions. Financial sustainability was another important aspect of our strategy that we intended to develop. Beyond training implementation, the Action efforts focused on building sustainability schemes for the benefits of the programme to continue beyond January 2014. This was done through capacity building for TVET providers or local partners to source funds to continue delivering trainings, but also through advocacy actions towards potential partners, or through the embedment of the curricula developed in national vocational and sector frameworks. At last, we intended to expand the HIT approach to other sectors of SNV by sharing our best practices with our colleagues. For this the Action developed five knowledge development products based on learning and best practices of piloting the Action in seven countries by seven different teams. These products are: (i) the High Impact Training approach, (ii) the Inception Phase Analysis manual, (iii) the HIT Curriculum Development and Learning Methodology’; (iv) the Enabling Environment guidelines; and (v) the publication: TVET for informal workers in Africa and Asia: needs and opportunities. The acknowledgement of the quality of our approach and methodologies led to the integration of the HIT approach to agriculture programmes in Cambodia and Indonesia.