Informal workers in the tourism sector in seven targeted countries will be able to capitalise on tourism opportunities through benefitting from practical, market-oriented training and strengthened links with the formal tourism sector.
As a result, the informal tourism sectors in Benin, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Cambodia, Vietnam and Nepal will make an increasing contribution towards sustainable pro-poor growth in their countries. It is hoped that other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia will benefit from the HITT approach through adopting these techniques after the programme concludes in 2014.
Within the programme SNV proposes an approach providing development professionals with guidelines for the development and implementation of a market-driven, vocational training system for the informal sector, while at the same time creating an enabling and permissive environment for TVET through the use of multi-stakeholder platforms in which the private sector has a prominent place – this has become ‘the HITT approach’.
Although the programme is piloted in the tourism sector, the focus of the intervention is essentially on the development of a TVET for the informal sector, a system to be tested and improved in a 36 months programme period, with the expectation that it can be used in an equal manner for other SNV priority sectors, Agriculture, Renewable Energy and WaSH.
The HITT approach has two components:
- The HITT learning approach
- The HITT enabling environment approach
The HITT learning approach:
All training programmes are designed and delivered using this learning approach to promote high impact training for our targeted beneficiaries. It consists of a set of core elements that are adhered to by trainers and reflected in the templates used for the development of training materials.
This approach is vital because most beneficiaries have had limited exposure to formal skills training, which impacts on their disposition to attend and succeed in traditional forms of training. Many are adults with responsibilities that affect their availability for training or they are informal workers, or casual or seasonal workers with a range of other responsibilities and whose availability and demographics impact on the type of training that they will respond best to. Many bring with them a range of life experiences that will affect their learning.
The core values related to the HITT learning approach are:
- Andragogy - focus the learning on the adults and not the teacher.
- Acknowledge prior learning – use existing existing knowledge, beliefs, attitudes and a range of skills and experience in the learning process.
- Active learning – involve the HITT beneficiary in the process of their own learning (learning by doing) to ensure the highest level of retention.
- Integrated learning – firstly, by integrating learning with real work (i.e, ensuring that the trainer fully understands the learner’s work), the day to day job pressures, the tools they use (or could use) and how they use them, the job inputs, processes and feedback mechanisms for people doing the job. Secondly, integrated lessons help trainees make connections across various topics in a course, e.g. connecting skills and knowledge from multiple sources and experiences, applying skills and practices in various settings and understanding how different topics and skills work together.
- Creating motivation for learning – the ARCS model identifies four essential components for motivating trainees:
- Attention: strategies for arousing and sustaining curiosity and interest; e.g. a problem statement, challenge, humour, etc.
- Relevance: strategies that link to trainees’ needs, interests and motives; e.g. increasing earning power, able to get employment.
- Confidence: strategies to help students gain confidence in their own abilities such as accomplishing challenging tasks.
- Satisfaction: strategies to create a sense of achievement e.g. certificates, rewards, scores.
The HITT enabling environment approach:
The HITT enabling environment approach consist of a set of core values adopted by the programme in order to create an enabling and permissive environment for the development and implementation of market driven TVET for the informal sector. The following section provides an overview of these core elements of the HITT enabling environment approach and the envisioned products/outcomes resulting from implementing this approach.
The seven core values related to the HITT enabling environment approach are:
- Market driven – ensure market demand, sector growth potential, quality standards and labour needs inform the choices of value chains, occupations, job profiles, competences and geographical areas for piloting.
- Employment focused – ensure training modules are practical, developed in close consultation with real practitioners and validated by actual employers so trainees improve job and income prospects and eventually informal workers can move to formal jobs. Foster partnerships between TVET service providers and employers to facilitate training delivery, secure on-the-job-training opportunities and link trainees to job entry.
- Cost efficient – practical analysis of sector context, training needs, constraints in access and working conditions, cultural and gender issues.
- Works with the formal TVET system – to identify opportunities for innovation in the existing formal TVET system regarding job profile and curricula development, training delivery and result monitoring, so they become more resource efficient and targeted. Also to secure recognition of informal and non-formal training activities by the formal education and TVET systems.
- Fosters local partnership and ownership – a steering committee unites sector stakeholders to provide supervision and guidance on the design and implementation of the TVET system, and guarantee embedding the programme in the national TVET/training landscape.
- Sets global standards based on local experiences - the development of successful TVET systems are based on common patterns of constraints, lessons learned and experiences in the seven programme countries.
- Flexible - puts emphasis on the “how to” in the methodology, showing practical examples on how tools can be adapted for different TVET and sector contexts.
The target is to train 8,000 people overall. These people are unskilled and semi-skilled informal workers and potential workers . They also include informal, small and micro entrepreneurs with particular emphasis on women, young people, the under skilled and semi-skilled, and those with limited resources and access to vocational training.
The programme aims to build the capacity of existing trainers and institutions to deliver effective vocational training, including integrated quality assessment and impact monitoring systems.